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Emissions from transport are a key issue in urban areas particularly where there are high volumes of vehicles and/or significant levels of congestion. Transport interventions are implemented to try and improve traffic flows and/or reduce traffic volumes. To assess the impacts of transport interventions on emissions one must undertake an emissions assessment. These can have a number of functions: a) Estimate the likely future impacts of a measure or strategy; b) Assist planners and policy makers to design measures or strategies to reduce emissions; c) Quantify actual impacts of already implemented measures/strategies.

This Centro de Consulta – Reducción de Emisiones is designed to provide basic guidance and recommendations as to the tools and models available to assess GHG and local pollutant emissions from urban transport interventions in Latin America and the Caribbean Region. A database is also provided for factsheets and more detailed information. The full critical review which underpins the Centro de Consulta – Reducción de Emisiones recommendations can be found in the Centro de Consulta – Reducción de Emisiones database.

Information Database

Method Description Factsheet Access to tools and more information
Clean Development Mechanism Developed by UNFCCC to provide methodologies for developing nations to verify reductions in GHG emissions from emission reduction projects in order for them to be eligible for Certified Emission Reduction (CERs) credits. 

AM = Approved Methodology
ACM = Approved Consolidated Methodology
AMS = Approved Methodology for Small Scale Projects.

Transport oriented methodologies are as listed below:
  CDM Homepage
CDM Methodologies & Technologies
CDM AM0031 Emissions reductions estimations from Bus Rapid Transit AM0031 Version 4.0.0
CDM AM0090 Emissions reductions estimations from modal shift in transportation of cargo from road transportation to water or rail transportation. AM0090 Version 1.1.0
CDM ACM0016 Emissions reductions estimations from Mass Rapid Transit ACM0016 Version 3.0.0
CDM ACM0017 Emissions reductions estimations from production of biodiesel for use as fuel. ACM0017 Version 2.1.0
CDM AMS-III.AA. Emissions reductions estimations from transportation energy efficiency activities using retrofit technologies AMS-III.AA Version 1.0
CDM AMS-III.AK. Biodiesel production and use for transport applications - Version 1.0 AMS-III.AK  Version 1.0
CDM AMS-III.AP. Emissions reductions estimations from transport energy efficiency activities using post - fit Idling Stop device - Version 2.0 AMS-III.AP  Version 2.0
CDM AMS-III.AQ. Emissions reductions estimations from introduction of Bio-CNG in transportation applications - Version 1.0 AMS-III.AQ Version 1.0
CDM AMS-III.AT. Emissions reductions estimations from transportation energy efficiency activities installing digital tachograph systems to commercial freight transport fleets - Version 1.0 AMS-III.AT Version 1.0
CDM AMS-III.C. Emission reductions by electric and hybrid vehicles - Version 13.0 AMS-III.C Version 13.0
CDM AMS-III.S. Emissions reductions estimations from introduction of low-emission vehicles/technologies to commercial vehicle fleets - Version 2.0 AMS-III.S  Version 2.0
CDM AMS-III.T. Emissions reductions estimations from plant oil production and use for transport applications - Version 2.0 AMS-III.T Version 2.0
CDM AMS-III.U. Emissions reductions estimations from cable Cars for Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) - Version 1.0 AMS-III.U Version 1.0
Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) Methodologies Voluntary country engagement proposals to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Rules and methodologies for operation of NAMA have not yet been established.  
GEF Manual for calculating GHG benefits for GEF transportation projects Method implemented using the TEEMP model (see below). Step-by-step guide for development of baseline, impact estimation and calibration of transport projects across a wide range of interventions. Manual provides GEF default emission factors for use within TEEMP and provides guidance on estimating direct post-project and indirect GHG emission reductions.   Download site for the GEF Manual
Integrated Environmental Strategies methodology
Developed by the USEPA to assess the emissions impact of measures before implementation, helping local and national governments to make environmental decisions. Designed to support developing nations in performing evaluations of a range of tools for assessing energy/ emissions, air quality, health, and economy. Integrated Environmental Strategies
Lagos CO2 Emissions Assessment Handbook World Bank and Lagos Metropolitan Area Transport Authority funded guide to calculating the impact on carbon emissions from the implementation of a new transport scheme. No webpage available
VCS –CityRyde Methodology for determining GHG emissions reductions through bicycle sharing projects Proposed methodology for project activities that reduce GHG emissions through the usage of public sharing-based bicycle projects.   Applicable bicycle types include standard, exclusively human-powered peddle bikes as well as electric bikes which may also be peddle-assist.  Methodology modeled on CDM AM0031 and ACM0016. Methodology for Determining GHG Emission Reductions Through Bicycle Sharing Projects
VCS Methodology for efficiency improvements HDV’s and mobile machinery Quantifies GHG emission reductions from activities which improve the efficiency of trucks and/or mobile machinery equipment which may include anti-idling devices, eco-drive, tire-rolling resistance improvement, air-conditioning system improvement, low viscosity oils, etc. Methodology for Efficiency Improvements HDV’s and Mobile Machinery
VCS-Ecofrotas Methodology for substitution of gasoline and its blends by ethanol in commercial fleets of flex-fuel vehicles Quantifies GHG emission reductions from commercial fleets (10 or more vehicles) that consist exclusively of flexible-fuel vehicles that can alternate between two sources of fuel such as gasoline or ethanol blends in any proportion. Methodology for complete substitution of gasoline and its blends by ethanol in commercial fleets of flex-fuel vehicles
Tools and Models
Method Description Factsheet Access to tools and more information
CCAP Transport Emissions Guidebook Provides basic ‘rule of thumb’ to calculate emissions reductions from the implementation of a range of specific transportation and land use policies. CCAP Transport Emissions Guidebook
(Computer Programme to Calculate Emissions from Road Transport)
A software program that estimates transport emissions and projections from on- and off-road transport, compatible with European technologies only. COPERT was designed to aid European nations report vehicle emissions levels to international institutions. General information COPERT and links to the tool.
EFFECT Energy Forecasting Framework and Emissions Consensus Tool Forecasts national-level emissions and quantifies emission reduction from policies across five sectors, including road transport. No webpage currently available
IVE International Vehicle Emissions model As described above the International Vehicle Emissions model has two components. The second phase is a model which takes the activity data derived by applying the detailed method to generate an estimate of vehicular emissions. IVE Home
Mobile6 A USEPA software tool used to calculate vehicular emissions factors. The model calculates emissions factors in grams per mile, for both exhaust and evaporative emissions. It is capable of calculating emissions factors for 25 model-years, for any period between 1952 and 2050.  The model includes only United States technological specifications for vehicles. MOBILE6 Vehicle Emission Modeling Software
MOVES Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator A software program developed by USEPA that estimates on-road vehicular emissions expressed as either total mass (aggregate) or as emissions factors (mass per vehicle or distance travelled). The model can generate emissions estimations for start and evaporative emissions by vehicle type. MOVES functions at any geographic scale such as at national, county, and “project” or local scales.

The EPA has replaced MOBILE with MOVES.
TAMT Transport Activity Measurement Toolkit A toolkit designed to facilitate vehicle activity data gathering and management designed to provide a simplified standardized approach to data collection and processing.

TAMT does not calculate emissions factors.
TAMT Manual

TAMT Downloads
TEEMP Transport Emissions Evaluation Models for Projects A suite of Excel-based spreadsheets, each built on simple input/output tables that quantify emissions reductions from various transit measures using very little local data. TEEMP Homepage
TNT-UNEP Toolkit Clean Fleet Strategy Developmen A step-by-step plan which allows fleet owners to understand and identify the impacts of their fleet, evaluate the options to reduce impacts and to develop a strategy to track improvements. Welcome to the UNEP/TNT Toolkit for Clean Fleet Strategy Development


Critical Review Summary »
Centro de Consulta – Reducción de Emisiones Database
See Factsheets for information on the tools, methods and methodologies discussed within the Centro de Consulta – Reducción de Emisiones and Critical Review, and links to further information.